The loss of the Peking man fossils remains perhaps the greatest paleoanthropological mystery in the history of the Science. Lost in 1941 as World War II broke out in the Pacific, the fossils were last seen being loaded in two crates onto trucks by US Marines, destined for safekeeping in the United States. They were then lost to history. Despite one of the most intensive searches in the history of archaeological sciences, including substantial rewards being offered. No verifiable sign of the whereabouts of these important historical objects has emerged. Was there a particular reason why these fossils mysteriously vanished?